Education As Preventative Medicine

images

I always enjoy “meeting” someone on the internet who seems to hold the same views that I do and just recently, I came across an interesting article, Lifelong Learning and Wellness One Component to the Enlightened Gerosphere, in which the author, Paul David Nussbaum, Ph.D., Director, Neurobehavioral Services at St. John Center in Mars, Pennsylvania, put forth the suggestion that just as exercise and healthy eating are preventative, education can be a means of avoiding the dreaded Alzheimer’s.  As he writes:

Imagine an America where health insurance companies paid for attendance at church or synagogue, enrollment in higher education, residence within technologically advanced homes (smart homes) which can relay health information directly to the primary care physician, and even sustained employment. This approach to wellness stands in sharp contrast to the current model that incentivizes annual, invasive procedures such as a pap smear. While these ideas may render a humorous response, we must remember that the total dollar allocation for health care in this country is approximately one trillion dollars, and that one third (33%), or 300 billion dollars, of that total cost is for services delivered to the older adult. Despite this, Medicare and Medicaid are financially unstable. Imagine running a business in which you invest 300 billion dollars and yet the business is bankrupt! Perhaps we are not approaching the care of older Americans in a proper manner!”

I totally agree with Dr. Nussbaum’s assessment that nursing homes are not an answer, as I have written in previous posts, but because he writes it so eloquently, I will share what he writes:

Older Americans do not need high technology medicine, should not be treated in acute care centers as they suffer chronic illness, should not be forced to choose a nursing home, and should not be forced to retire or withdraw from a personal role and purpose. Instead, older Americans should have access to geriatricians who are afforded the same status of primary care physician as are pediatricians, should have access to a chronic care system, should be afforded multiple long term care options which do not include institutionalization and consequent family/financial death. Further, older Americans should be incentivized (financially) to remain well by promoting the social/human factors of health listed above.

I have championed the need to end the existence of nursing homes in the United States as I believe they represent the neglect of a great country to care for a vulnerable and needy segment of our population. Nursing and other services can be delivered without the cement walls of an institution. Nursing homes were built post-World War II and represented a warehousing model of care. Think about where nursing homes are located and you can understand the resulting removal of individuals from the vitality of life. My beliefs have nothing to do with the quality care and hard work that occurs every day in most of our nursing homes. In contrast, the United States must awaken to the fact that nearly one third of Americans would rather die than enter a nursing home, and the market has demonstrated consistently that potential employees seek work elsewhere— human beings do not want to live or work in nursing homes!

Again, Dr. Nussbaum so nicely summarizes the reality of aging in our society today:

Today, the United States has an extremely primitive understanding of aging. Our country maintains a negative perception about getting older, one that reflects a genuine misunderstanding of the facts regarding aging. For example, our entire social and legislative policy is based on an invalid age-threshold of 65. Clearly, we need to increase this age-threshold to reflect more accurately the expected lifespan of Americans. Most people are not aware that age 65 was employed for social benefits by Chancellor Bismarck in Germany over 100 years ago.  Americans believe that advanced age leads to poverty, illness, Alzheimer’s disease, nursing home placement, depression, and loneliness. These entrenched perceptions exist despite facts that nearly 70% of older adults (those living beyond 65) are independent, financially stable, happy, healthy, and productive. Further, the vast majority of older Americans do not have Alzheimer’s and do not live in nursing homes.

So my blog is entitled “education as preventative medicine”  Where does this part of the article begin.  Right here!  Dr. Nussbaum states that

Fortunately, researchers interested in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) which affects four million Americans, and costs the country 100 billion dollars annually in direct care and 30 billion dollars in indirect care related to caregiver illness, have underscored the importance of education as a potential preventative factor against AD. Multiple studies have demonstrated a reduced risk of AD for those with advanced education. The neurobiological explanation of this has been labeled Reserve Theory. Essentially, information which is learned must be processed by our brains, itself a physiological event. Such learning promotes development of new neurons and neural pathways. The theory advances that with increased cell density and cell volume, a progressive disease such as AD will not impact the brain or will impact the brain at a later age because the disease will have to destroy a greater number of cells to manifest clinically. The increased volume of cells in the brain provide a reserve to fight off invading diseases such as AD. Interestingly, the Reserve Theory has been advanced for other etiologies of dementia besides AD.

Although there is more in Dr. Nussbaum’s article on studies demonstrating more proof, I would refer the reader’s to his article, as I have reached my word quota for this particular blog.  Thank you, Dr. Nussbaum.

Copyright Yvonne Behrens 2014

 

 

 

 

 

Death and Dying

images-1

Apparently the topic of death and dying is starting to become less taboo in our society.  I have just come across two articles that speak on this subject.  Now I do  not want to insinuate that we have turned a chapter on this topic.  We certainly continue to be a society that would rather avoid anything that reminds us of death than recognize that it is part of life.  As Walter Mosley penned in The Last Days of Ptolemy Grey: ““We born dyin’…But you ask a man an’ he talk like he gonna live forevah.”

However, since those days in 2009, when ugly looking American Citizens held up signs like”Obama has created death panels” or “kill grandma” in response to a provision that had been placed in the Health Care Reform Act to enable doctors to receive compensation for end of life counseling [and because of all that nastiness, the provision was removed], we as a nation seem to have sobered up on the topic of death.

Recently, a new movement has occurred: death cafes.  According to Stacey Burling, Inquirer Staff Writer,

Death cafes are based on the ideas of Bernard Crettoz, a Swiss sociologist. They had made it to England by 2011 and were soon on their way to the United States, according to deathcafe.com, the mother organization of the “social franchise.” It says 200 death cafes have been held in nine countries.

I find it interesting that death is such a taboo subject.  It is almost as though people believe that they might bring it on if they talk about it.  But the fact is that we are all headed to the grave at some point or another in our lives and we should accept that fact.  As we do, we will become better prepared to deal with the topic.  As it is, we still wish to avoid it and so these baby steps that are starting to appear in our country are a very positive sign and not morbid in the least.  Further in Burling’s article, she quotes:

Raphael is a rabbinic pastor with Jewish Renewal, an emerging denomination. He’s also a therapist and death awareness counselor. He founded the DA’AT Institute for death awareness, advocacy, and training.

He thinks this is a great time to talk about death. Baby boomers are aging and many are losing their parents. Hospice participation is increasing. People are interested in near-death experiences and Eastern religions.

“I think we’re living through this profound revolution in terms of our cultural attitudes toward death,” he said.

He believes death is still more of a “great intimacy” than sex, and a topic that feels taboo to too many. That means many don’t get the support they need when someone they love dies. On the first day, friends will greet them with a serious, long face, he said. On day two, they’ll ask, “How you doing?” By the third day, friends have moved on and people are left to “live with their grief in this kind of invisible way.”

There are even “death dinner” events that also focus on the topic of death and dying.  Dinner, always being a place for good social gathering, seems a great way to bring up the taboo topic.  From a blog by mother nature network

The website Death Over Dinner offers a way to facilitate the process. It gently leads the organizer through a series of questions that can help make the planning of such a get-together a little more straightforward. Asking about who you’d want to attend, what your intention is (to make specific plans, to get a real conversation going about death and dying, or to prepare for another’s death), and even providing resources to watch, listen and read, the site helps you navigate what can be complex, emotional waters.

So yes, if not now, when?  Let’s talk death and dying!

copyright Yvonne Behrens 2014

 

 

 

 

Prescription Drugs Detected in Drinking Water

imgres

We have recently heard about the contaminated waters in the Elk River in West Virginia due to leaking toxic materials.  But for years now, our water sources have been the recipient of other potentially harmful elements: prescription drugs.

I have written in the past that pharmaceutical drugs are a predominant fixture in our society.  They are so prevalent, however,  that they have started to seep into our environment.  According to several sources,

Traces of prescription drugs—including antibiotics, anti-convulsants, mood stabilizers and sex hormones—have been detected in drinking water.  (Wikipedia, USA Today, Sunday Telegraph)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) did a study and found that the level of drugs found in our water supply is much higher than previously thought:

Specifically, more than half the samples of waste water from major cities tested by the EPA tested positive for at least 25 drugs. “We were surprised to find that many drugs occurring across all the waste water plants,” EPA research biologist Mitchell Kostich told The New Republic. “We were also surprised to see so many drugs of a particular class – the high blood pressure medications — appear at those levels across the board.” – See more at: http://healthydebates.com/25-plus-drugs-half-americas-drinking-water/#sthash.pWqKQ5Pl.dpuf
How, you may ask, do these drugs get into our water system?  Think about it:  the drugs are in our system, they are in our waste as well.  We are told to flush unused drugs down the toilet.  Right there are two sources.
In a survey conducted by CBS:
Researchers [found] that nearly 70 percent of Americans are on at least one prescription drug, and more than half receive at least two prescriptions, reports CBS Atlanta.
This adds up to a lot of pharmaceuticals being dumped into our water systems.

If these chemicals are being found in our drinking water, they have to be entering other parts of the eco-system as well, ie, the fish we eat.

These findings frighten me.  We speak about the war on drugs and yet one could make a case that the biggest culprits are those who “push” pharmaceutical drugs on the unaware general public.  The irony is that the “pusher” is probably not fully cognizant of his/her role in the whole sordid picture or, at least,  I certainly hope not. Every time a doctor writes a prescription, he/she is potentially creating an addict. Think about it. How often have you heard a doctor stop something he/she has prescribed for a “chronic” situation such as high blood pressure (one of the highest levels of drugs found in our water systems) or high cholesterol?

Both of these “chronic” situations can be alleviated by exercise, eating properly, and removing oneself from stressful situations. But in the world we inhabit today, we take pills. Our doctors prescribe them and he/she must know that it is important to take these pills for our health.  Also, let’s face it: pills are so much easier to pop than going to the gym or preparing a meal…. and, it takes so much less time….. and, God knows, time is a luxury these days.  To add insult to injury, in spite of knowing that these pills may have potentially nasty side effects, we continue to push them into our mouths and swallow.

Many of the drugs we take have been presented to us as something we will need to take for the rest of our lives.  As an example, blood pressure medication.  Doctors caution, in no uncertain terms that once one starts taking blood pressure medication, they need to remain on it for the rest of their lives.  However, this may not be true.

Take the story of my mother-in-law. She had been on blood pressure medication since her 50′s. Her blood pressure probably had spiked as she entered menopause. The doctor had told her that she had to take the blood pressure pills for the rest of her life. When she had moved in with us, she had been taking this prescription drug for high blood pressure for over thirty-five years. Everyone assumed that these drugs were working beautifully because her blood pressure was normal.

One day, as fate would have it, she came down with pneumonia. She eventually recovered because of the miracle drug: antibiotics.

About ten days after my mother-in-law returned home, her doctor noted that somehow her blood pressure pills had not been resumed. Lo and behold, her blood pressure was still normal. He told us not to resume them. Who knows when she could have actually quit? But worse, think about how many people are on high blood pressure pills in our country today and how many might not need to be? A financial boom for the pharmaceutical companies, certainly.  Yet also, according to the EPA study, one of the most prevalent drugs found in our water systems.

© Yvonne Behrens, M.Ed  2014

 

 

 

1948

images-1

And so now we move into a New Year: 1948 and as in previous years, many events which continue to have their effects on our world to this day.

January 30 – Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated.

February 23-25 – Communists seize Czechoslovakia

Apr. 30, 1948:  Organization of American States (OAS), international organization, created , at Bogotá, Colombia, by agreement of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Another 15 nations have subsequently joined.  The OAS is a regional agency designed to work with the United Nations to promote peace, justice, and hemispheric solidarity; to foster economic development (especially during the 1960s; see Alliance for Progress); and to defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the signatory nations. The general secretariat, formerly the Pan-American Union, located in Washington, D.C, is the permanent body of the OAS.

May 14, 1948  Israel becomes a recognized country and the State of Israel is born.  The next day, Arab forces from Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq invaded the new nation. By the cease-fire on Jan. 7, 1949, Israel had increased its original territory by 50%, taking western Galilee, a broad corridor through central Palestine to Jerusalem, and part of modern Jerusalem. Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion became Israel’s first president and prime minister. The new government was admitted to the UN on May 11, 1949.

Berlin airlift, 1948–49, supply of vital necessities to West Berlin by air transport primarily under U.S. auspices. It was initiated in response to a land and water blockade of the city that had been instituted by the Soviet Union in the hope that the Allies would be forced to abandon West Berlin. The massive effort to supply the 2 million West Berliners with food and fuel for heating began in June, 1948, and lasted until Sept., 1949, although the Russians lifted the blockade in May of that year.

June 28:  Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia breaks relations with Joseph Stalin’s Soviet Union.

December 27:  United States of Indonesia established as Dutch and Indonesians settle conflict.

Summer Olympics 1948: First summer Olympics in a dozen years and following World War II.  In London.

Winter Olympics 1948: Also the first Olympics after World War II receded from the landscape.  In St. Moritz, Switzerland.

The Hollywood Ten, a group of writers, producers and directors called as witnesses in the House Committee’s Investigation of Un-American Activities, are jailed for contempt of Congress when they refuse to disclose if they were or were not Communists.

Harry S. Truman ends racial segregation in the U.S. military.

Alger Hiss, former U.S. State Department official, indicted on perjury charges after denying passing secret documents to communist spy ring; convicted in second trial (1950) and sentenced to five-year prison term.

Read more: 1940 – 1949 World History | Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005249.html#ixzz2n6pZldN8

Margaret Sanger founds the International Planned Parenthood Federation.

Alfred Kinsey publishes Sexual Behavior in the Human Male.

Columbia Records introduces the 33 1/3 LP (“long playing”) record at New York’s Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. It allows listeners to enjoy an unprecedented 25 minutes of music per side, compared to the four minutes per side of the standard 78 rpm record.

It was a year of a lot of good literature as seen in the following publications:

And  a lot of breakthroughs in science and technology:

and the Nobel Prizes in Science went to the following individuals:

Chemistry: Arne Tiselius (Sweden), for biochemical discoveries and isolation of mouse paralysis virus

Physics: Patrick M. S. Blackett (UK), for improvement on Wilson chamber and discoveries in cosmic radiation

Physiology or Medicine: Paul Mueller (Switzerland), for discovery of insect-killing properties of DDT

This last entry, on hindsight, may have done more to harm our planet and us than to benefit it.  Certainly we learned twenty years later of the devastating affects DDT had on our environment and ourselves.  But back in the late ’40′s and early ’50′s this was a miracle element and children used to chase the mosquito spraying trucks on hot summer days.

Some years ago, I came across an article that my father had written for a travel magazine lauding the miracle of DDT and its effectiveness in killing mosquitoes.  He wrote: “If you are in a tent and those pesky mosquitoes start to attack, take that can of DD&T and spray them into oblivion.”  My father died of complications from Parkinson’s Disease.  Since finding that article, I have wondered whether my father’s apparent enthusiastic spraying of DDT as a young man may have played a role.  I also have a friend whose father was an avid gardner who died from complications of Parkinson’s.  I asked her if he sprayed his garden against insects.  She replied, “liberally.”

Tennessee Williams‘s A Streetcar Named Desire wins Pulitzer.

And that’s it, folks, for 1948.  I am sure there is much not included, but hopefully this catches most of the major events.

Read more: Top News Stories from 1948 | Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/year/1948.html#ixzz2n6k4teh2

1947….and the baby boom continues…..

images-1

And so the U.S. continues to develop its international personality while other countries around the world continue their march towards freedom.

January 1st.  WTTG TV channel 5 begins broadcasting

January 2: Mahatma Gandhi begins march for peace in East Bengali/

January 3 – 1st opening session of Congress televised.

William Dawson becomes 1st Black to head a congressional committee.

January 8: General George Marshall becomes first Secretary of State.

January 10: British stop ships Independence and In-Gathering from landing in Israel.

January 20th Brigadier General Edwin K. Wright, becomes Deputy Director of the CIA

January 22nd  1st commercial TV station west of the Mississippi opens in Hollywood, CA

January 24th NFL adds 5th official and allows sudden death in playoffs.

February 3rd 1st Black reporter in Congressional press gallery (Percival Prattis)

February 7th: Arabs and Jews reject British proposal to split Palestine.

February 10th: WWII peace treaties signed

February 12th: Daytime fireball & meteorite fall seen in Eastern Siberia

Record 100.5 KG sailfish caught off Galapagos Islands

February 17th: Voice of America begins broadcasting to USSR

February 20th: Chemical mixing error causes explosion that destroys 42 blocks in LA

Lord Mountbatten appointed as last viceroy of India

State of Prussia ceases to exist.

February 21: First broadcast of TV soap opera.

February 21: First instant developing camera demonstrated in NYC.

February 23: General Eisenhower opens drive to rais $170 million in aid for European Jews.

February 28: Taiwan civil disorder is put down the the loss of 30,000 civilian lives.

March 1st: International Monetary Fund begins operation.

March 4th:  WWJ TV, channel 4 (NBC) begins broadcasting in Detroit.

March 6th: XB-45, 1st US 4-engine jet bomber makes 1st test flight, Muroc, CA

March 12th: President Harry Truman introduces Truman-doctrine to fight communism.

March 15th: John Lee appointed 1st Black commissioned officer in the U.S. Navy.

March 20th: 180 metric ton blue whale (record) caught in South Atlantic.

March 21st: President Harry Truman signs Executive Order 9835 requiring all Federal employees to have allegiance to the United States.

March 24th: John D. Rockefeller Jr. donates NYC East River site to the UN.

April 1st: First Jewish immigrants to Israel disembark at Port of Eliat.

April 8th Largest recorded sunspots observed (7,000).

April 9th: Atomic Energy Commission confirmed

April 10th: Jackie Robinson becomes 1st Black in major league baseball (Dodgers)

April 16th: Lens to provide zoom effect demonstrated (NYC).

May 1st:Lt. General Hoyt S. Vandenberg ends term as 2nd head of CIA

Rear Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, USN becomes 3rd Director of CIA

May 3rd: Japan forms a constitutional democracy.  New Post-war Japanese constitution goes into effect.

May 7th: Paraguayian government unleashes contra revolt.

May 13th: Senate approves the Taft-Hartley Act limiting the power of unions.

May 22nd: “Truman Doctrine” goes into effect, aiding Turkey & Greece

1st US ballistic missile fired

May 31st: Communists grab power in Hungary

June 1st Photosensitive glass developed

June 4th House of Representatives approves Taft-Hartley Act

June 5th  Secretary of State George C. Marshall outlines “Marshall Plan”

June 6th: Treaty drawn for establishment of International Patent Institute

June 16th: First network News – Dumont’s “News from Washington”

Pravda denounces Marshall Plan

June 17th:  Pan Am Airways chartered as 1st worldwide passenger airline

June 19th: 1st plane (F-80) exceeds 600 m.p.h.

June 20th: President Truman vetoes Taft-Hartley Act

June 23rd: Truman’s veto of Taft-Hartley Act overridden by Congress

June 24th: Flying saucers sighted over Mount Rainier by Pilot Ken Arnold

Jackie Robinson hits his first of 19 home runs.

June 25th: Tennis shoe introduced.

June 27th: NBC, channel 4 begins broadcasting

July 6th: the AK-47 goes into production in the Soviet Union

July 7-8: Reports that a UFO has crash landed in Roswell New Mexico are broadcast and disputed.

July 9th: Princess Elizabeth and Lt. Philip Mountbatten are engaged.

Spain votes for Franco monarchy

July 18th:  British seize “Exodus 1947″ ship of Jewish immigrants to Palestine

King George VI signs Indian Independence Bill

President Truman signs Presidential Succession Act

US beings administering Trust Territory of Pacific Islands

July 19th: Prime Minister of shadow Burma Government, six cabinet members, and two non-cabinet members assassinated by the British, causing political chaos that continues to this day.

July 23rd: First (U.S. Navy) Air squadron of jets flown

July 25th:  US Air Force, Navy & War department form U.S. Department of Defense

US Department of Army created

July 26th: National Security Act establishes CIA

August 15th: India declares independence from Britain.  Islamic part becomes Pakistan

Sept. 29: Record World Series crowd of 73,365 at Yankee Stadium.

Oct. 1: US control of Haitian customs & governmental revenue ends.

Oct 2: revised International Telecommunication Convention adopted

Oct. 3: 1st telescope lens 200″ in diameter completed.

Channel 7 ABC begins

Oct 5: First presidential television address televised from White House

Oct. 9: First telephone conversation between a moving car and an airplane.

Oct. 11: Brazil and Chile break diplomatic relations with USSR

Oct. 14th: Chuck Yeager makes 1st supersonic flight.

Oct. 19th: Charles de Gaulle wins French elections

Oct. 23rd: NAACP petition on racism presented to the UN

Oct. 26th: British military occupation of Iraq ends

Oct. 27th: Channel 2, NBC begins broadcasting

Oct. 30th: 23 countries sign GATT agreement in Geneva

Nov. 17th:  The U.S. Screen Actors Guild implements an anti-Communist loyalty oath.

15,000 demonstrate in Brussels against mild sentence of nazis

Nov. 20th: 1st permanent TV installed on seagoing vessel (New Jersey)

Nov. 24th: Un-American Activities Committee finds “Hollywood 10″ in contempt because of their refusal to reveal whether they were communists.

Nov. 29th: UN General Assembly partitions Palestine between Arabs and Jews.

and the reign of terrorism begins in that part of the world

Dec. 10th: USSR & Czechoslovakia sign trade agreement

Dec. 12th: United Mine Workers union withdraws from AFL

Dec. 13th Maine Turnpike opens to traffic

Dec. 14th: The National Association for Stock Car Automobiles (NASCAR) opens on Daytona Beach, FL

Dec. 23rd: Transistor invented by Bardeen, Brattain & Shockley of Bell Labs

Dec. 25th: The Constitution of the Republic of China goes into effect.

Dec. 26th: Heavy snow blankets Northeast, burying NYC under 25.8″ of snow in 16 hours and LA sets a record high of 84 degrees.

Dec. 27th: First “Howdy Doody Show”

Dec. 29th: Ship carrying Jewish immigrants driven away from Palestine

Dec. 30th:  King Michael of Romania, forced by Communists to abdicate his throne.  Romanian Republic declared.

Do Economics Influence Attitudes Towards Aging?

images-9

I have been working on a power point presentation entitled “One Size Does Not Fit All.”  The presentation will focus on how the cultural  mores of the aging population in our country are beginning to influence how we, as a culture, need to respond.

While doing research on this project, I am finding some very interesting studies.  One in particular struck a chord:  How economics influences our attitude towards aging.

Early studies which focused on socioeconomic predictors found that higher levels of economic development and industrialization are associated with less favorable attitudes towards aging and a lower societal status of older adults (e.g., Simmons, 1945Arnhoff, et al., 1964Maxwell, 1970Bengtson, Dowd, Smith, & Inkeles, 1975Palmore & Manton, 1974).

Why would this be?  Well, first off, the more money there is, the easier it is to “put an elderly away.”   In this country, retirement communities have sprung up all over and have, in fact, become an accepted part of the aging process.  This, in turn, means that grandchildren do not have a lot of opportunities to spend with their grandparents.  If the grandparent is not a regular part of the child’s environment, what sort of rapport can develop between the two individuals?  The less youth has an opportunity to interact with older citizens, the more likely they will develop a disdain for the apparent fogginess they encounter and even the inability to close the cultural gap that naturally exists between the energy of youth and the less energetic elder.

On the other hand, if a child grows up with [a] grandparent(s) in which the grandparent(s) [is] a very dynamic part of their world, their attitude will be very different.  There will be a bond.  There will be a sense of love.  They will actually see that Grandma or Grandpa has many sides to their personality.  They might even have the opportunity to see how grandma or grandpa change as they age and recognize that this is the natural order of things.

In turn, if the grandparent(s) [is] in a retirement community and the family visits them once a week, usually on a Sunday after church or brunch and the kid is in a strange environment, still in his/her church clothes witnessing a forced situation of having to make conversation, how much relating can really occur?  Most children don’t think to ask their grandparent what their life was like when they were younger.  So they sit there, feeling awkward in front of a virtually old stranger, just waiting for the moment when they can get up to leave to go home.

(Cowgill, 19721986) argues that industrialization has undermined the societal status of older adults and with the break up of the traditional extended family through urbanization, has shifted the value of the elder’s means of production and experienced based knowledge to a much lower rung.  Although in some circles, modernization theory is considered an oversimplification, I find that there is enough within the studies that validate the argument that modernization has had a negative influence in society’s general attitude towards its aging population.

In a study done by Corinna E. Löckenhoff, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, USA, the researchers approached their study with the following predictions:

In general, we predicted that perceptions about aspects of aging that are strongly linked to biological changes (i.e., physical aging and changes in fluid cognitive abilities) would show less variation across cultures and fewer associations with culture-level variables than perceptions of socioemotional aspects of aging (e.g., family relations and life satisfaction) and societal views of the aging process. For culture-level associations with socioeconomic characteristics, we expected to replicate previous research indicating that advanced development is associated with less favorable perceptions of aging.

Their findings confirmed this.  Utilizing Dutch Sociologist, Geert Hofstede’s value dimensions:

participants from cultures with greater Uncertainty Avoidance* reported more negative societal views of aging. Uncertainty Avoidance was also associated with less favorable expectations about age-related changes in family authority and life satisfaction. Further, participants from cultures higher in Power Distance** reported less favorable views of age-related changes in knowledge and wisdom.

Although this is a large topic of which only a small piece is reviewed in this blog entry, it just is another indication of how we need to re-think aging and bring it back as part of the mix.

 

* the concept of Uncertainty Avoidance deals with a society’s tolerance of ambiguity and uncertainty.  The more structured a society is, ie, Germany, the less comfortable its citizenry is with ambiguity.

** Power Distance refers to how those individuals who are less powerful within an entity (whether a society or a family) accept and expect inequality in the power structure with which they find themselves.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1946, The First Year of the Baby Boom

images-3

As a boomer, I have decided that I am going to post events that happened every year from 1946-1964, the years that have been coined the Baby Boomer Years.  Each new post will take the next year up until the last year of the boomer years.

As it turns out, 1946 was an incredibly crucial year in which many events formed or helped create scenarios which have continued to be the backdrop of the world that we Boomers have lived in.  As a few: the Cold War and the CIA came into existence; the first computer was completed; the Zionist were making forays into creating a Jewish state in Palestine; the Nuclear weapons race begins; the United Nations was created; Ho Chi Minh and Vietnam entered the world stage; many new governments were created and a very definite line was drawn between the Eastern and Western blocs; many colonies were demanding their freedom, some of which were granted in 1946.  Television as a source of entertainment began; the issues of racism start to be acknowledged politically in the United States; the NFL is formed; the first commercially designed helicopter is introduced; the bikini bathing suit is introduced; the first Cannes Film Festival is held; Nehru forms a government in India; George Orwell publishes “Animal Farm”; Dr. Spock publishes his book on rearing babies, the bible used to bring all us boomers up.

Domestically,

President Harry Truman was President of the United States.  Within the country, much upheaval and change was being felt.  According to Wikipedia:

The end of World War II was followed by an uneasy transition from war to a peacetime economy. The costs of the war effort were enormous, and Truman was intent on decreasing government expenditures on the military as quickly as possible. Demobilizing the military and reducing the size of the various services was a cost-saving priority. The effect of demobilization on the economy was unknown, but fears existed that the nation would slide back into a depression. A great deal of work had to be done to plan how best to transition to peacetime production of goods while avoiding mass unemployment for returning veterans. There was no consensus among government officials as to what economic course the postwar U.S. should steer. In addition, Roosevelt had not paid attention to Congress in his final years, and Truman faced a body where a combination of Republicans and conservative southern Democrats formed a powerful voting bloc.[68]

The president was faced with the reawakening of labor-management conflicts that had lain dormant during the war years, severe shortages in housing and consumer products, and widespread dissatisfaction with inflation, which at one point hit 6% in a single month.[69] Added to this polarized environment was a wave of destabilizing strikes in major industries, and Truman’s response to them was generally seen as ineffective.[69] A rapid increase in costs was fueled by the release of price controls on most items, and labor sought wage increases. A serious steel strike in January 1946 involving 800,000 workers—the largest in the nation’s history—was followed by a coal strike in April and a rail strike in May. The public was angry, with a majority in polls favoring a ban on strikes by public service workers and a year’s moratorium on labor actions. Truman proposed legislation to draft striking workers into the Armed Forces, and in a dramatic personal appearance before Congress, was able to announce settlement of the rail strike. His proposal passed the House of Representatives, but failed in the Senate.[70][71]For commodities where price controls remained, producers were often unwilling to sell at artificially low prices: Farmers refused to sell grain for months in 1945 and 1946 until payments were significantly increased, even though grain was desperately needed, not only for domestic use, but to stave off starvation in Europe.[72]

Although labor strife was muted after the settlement of the railway strike, it continued through Truman’s presidency. The President’s approval rating dropped from 82% in the polls in January 1946 to 52% by June.[73] This dissatisfaction with the Truman administration’s policies led to large Democratic losses in the 1946 midterm elections, when Republicans took control of Congress for the first time since 1930. The 80th Congress included Republican freshmen who would become prominent in the years to come, including Wisconsin Senator Joe McCarthy and California Congressman Richard Nixon. When Truman dropped to 32% in the polls, Democratic Arkansas Senator William Fulbright suggested that Truman resign; the President in response indicated that he did not care what Senator “Halfbright” said.[74][75]

When I was looking at what was happening in 1946, I was a little surprised at how familiar many of the entries sounded to our world today.  I did leave out a lot of references to sport events, Broadway events, and music premiers, since, although influences, I was wanting to focus more on events that caused major changes in our outlook as a society and influenced our perception of the world around us, clearly to this day.

Anyway, have a look below.

On the very first day of 1946, January 1,  the first computer was completed by Mauchley/Eckert.  How about that!

January 10: we make first radar contact with the moon and the U.N. General Assembly meets for the first time in London, England.

January 17:  United Nations Security Council holds its 1st meeting

January 22: US president sets up the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).  How about that!  And Rear Admiral Sidney W Souers, USNR, becomes 1st Director of CIA.

February 16: 1st commercially designed helicopter tested, Bridgeport Ct

In between January and February of 1946, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Albania form their dictatorships with Communism as their mantel.  Salazar in Portugal forms his dictatorship independently of the communist mantel.  And Franco continues his dictatorship of Spain.

February 14-15: Bank of England is nationalized

February 21: Anti-British demonstrations by Egyptians

February 24: Juan Peron elected president of Argentina

February 26: 2 killed & 10 wounded in race riot in Columbia Tenn

Mar 1st - Panama accepts its new Constitution

Mar 2nd - Ho Chi Minh elected president of North Vietnam; Kingman Douglass, becomes deputy director of CIA

Mar 5th - Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech (Fulton Missouri)

Mar 9th - Ted Williams is offered $500,000 to play in Mexican Baseball League.  He refuses

Mar 12th - Part of Petsamo province ceded by Soviet Union to Finland

Mar 14th - Belgian creates several governments over the course of the year, beginning with Spaak.  Until then, Belgian was ruled by a monarchy.
Mar 15th - British premier Attlee agrees with India’s right to independence

Mar 22nd - Britain signs treaty granting independence to Jordan

Mar 28th - Cold War: The United States State Department releases the Acheson-Lilienthal Report, outlining a plan for the international control of nuclear power.

Mar 31st - The first election is held in Greece after World War II.
Apr 1st - 400,000 US mine workers strike
Apr 1st - Tsunamis generated by a quake in Aleutian Trench strike Hilo Hawaii;  Weight Watchers forms; Formation of the Malayan Union.

Apr 3rd - Netherland-German postal relations resume

Apr 7th - Part of East Prussia incorporated into Russian SFSR; Syria’s independence from France is officially recognised.
Apr 8th - League of Nations assembles for last time

Apr 13th - Eddie Klepp, a white pitcher signed by defending Negro League champ Cleveland Buckeyes, is barred from field in Birmingham Alabama

Apr 18th - Jackie Robinson debuts as 2nd baseman for the Montreal Royals;  US recognizes Tito’s Yugoslavia government

Apr 20th - 1st baseball broadcast in Chicago, Cards vs Cubs

Apr 21st - SED, Socialistic Einheitspartei Germany forms in East Germany (another dictatorship forms under the mantel of Communism)

Apr 27th - 1st radar installation aboard a commercial ship.
Apr 29th - 28 former Japanese leaders indicted in Tokyo as war criminals

May 1st - Start of 3 year Pilbara strike of Indigenous Australians; The Paris Peace Conference concludes that the islands of the Dodecanese should be returned to Greece by Italy; Fieldmarshal Montgomery appointed British supreme commander

May 2nd - Prisoners revolt at Alcatraz.  The revolt lasts two days.  Two guards and three inmates are killed.

May 7th - William H Hastie inaugurated as 1st black governor of Virgin Islands; Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering (later renamed Sony) is founded with around 20 employees.

May 8th: The Estonian school girls Aili Jõgi and Ageeda Paavel blow up the Soviet memorial that preceded the Bronze Soldier in Tallinn.  Aili was 14 years old at the time and very active in the resistance movement.  She was finally caught and found guilty as an under-aged terrorist and sent to a Gulag labor camp,  west of the Ural mountains. She was exiled from the Estonian SSR for eight years.

May 9th - 1st hour long entertainment TV show, “NBC’s Hour Glass” premieres

May 10th - Umberto II succeeds Victor Emmanuel III as king of Italy; Red Sox win 15th straight beat Yanks 5-4, DiMaggio hits Grand Slam

May 11: The United Malays National Organisation, (UMNO) founded and  is  presently Malaysia’s largest political part and a founding member of the National Front coalition

May 13th - US convicts 58 camp guard of Mauthausen concentration camp to death

May 25th - Abdullah ibn Hussein becomes king of Jordan

May 26th - Klement Gottwald becomes premier of Czechoslovakia.  He was a founding father of the Communist party in Czechoslovakia; Patent filed in US for H-Bomb.

Jun 2nd - Italian plebiscite chooses republic over monarchy (National Day)
Jun 3rd - US Supreme court rules race separation on buses, unconstitutional;  1st bikini bathing suit displayed (Paris)

Jun 6th - The Basketball Association of America is formed in New York City

Jun 7th - US Supreme Court bans discrimination in interstate travel

Jun 8th - Sukarno calls for anti colonial defiance in Indonesia

Jun 9th - Bhumibol Adulyadej, becomes king of Thailand; Joe Louis KOs Billy Conn in 8 for heavyweight boxing title

Jun 10th - Italian Republic established; Rear Admiral Sidney W Souers, USNR, ends term as 1st director of CIA Lieutenant General Hoyt S Vandenberg, USA, becomes 2nd director of CIA
Jun 13th - 1st transcontinental round-trip flight in 1-day, California-Maryland; King Umberto II of Italy abdicates

Jun 29th - British mandatory government of Palestine arrests 100 leaders of Yishnuv
Jul 1st - Rajah cedes Sarawak to British crown; US drops atom bomb on Bikini atoll (4th atomic explosion)

Jul 3rd - 1st Dutch government of Beel forms

Jul 4th - Philippines gains independence from US

Jul 14th - Dr Ben Spock’s “Common Sense Book of Baby & Child Care” published; Mass murder of Jews in Kielce Poland

Jul 15th - British North Borneo Co transfers rights to British crown
Jul 16th - US court martials 46 SS to death (Battle of Bulge crimes) in Dachau

Jul 22nd - Menachen Begin’s opposition group surprise attack on King David hotel
Jul 23rd - Menachem Begins opposition group bombs King David Hotel

Jul 24th - US performs atmospheric nuclear Test at Bikini Island; US detonates underwater A-bomb at Bikini (5th atomic explosion)
Jul 25th - At Club 500 in Atlantic City, New Jersey, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis stage their first show as a comedy team.
Jul 26th - President Harry Truman orders desegregation of all US forces
Jul 26th - Aloha Airlines began service from Honolulu International Airport

Aug 1st - Pres Harry Truman establishes Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)

Aug 6th - US officially submits to jurisdiction of World Court
Aug 7th - 1st coin bearing portrait of Negro authorized
Aug 8th - India agrees to give Bhutan 32 sq miles

Aug 13th - Britain transfers illegal immigrants bound to Palestine, to Cyprus
Aug 16th - Great Calcutta blood bath – Moslem/Hindu riot (3-4,000 die)

Aug 17th - George Orwell publishes “Animal Farm” in the United Kingdom

Sep 1st - Greece votes for monarchy

Sep 2nd - Nehru forms government in India

Sep 8th - Bulgaria ends monarchy

Sep 20th - Churchill argues for a ‘United States of Europe’; The first Cannes Film Festival is held.

Sep 26th - 1st edition of Tintin (Kuifje), publishes until June 1993

Sep 28th - Greek king George II returns to Athens from exile

Sep 29th - Los Angeles (previously Cleveland) Rams play 1st NFL game in LA
Sep 29th - NPS, Nationale Party Suriname, forms
Sep 30th - 22 Nazi leaders found guilty of war crimes at Nuremberg; Von Ribbentrop & Hermann Goering sentenced to death by Nuremberg trial
Oct 1st - 12 war criminals sentenced to death in Nuremberg

Oct 8th - Kwo-less-shrew selects Gen Chiang Kai-shek as president of China

Oct 27th - Georgi Domitrovs National Front wins Bulgaria elections (78%)

Oct 28th - German rocket engineers begin work in USSR
Nov 1st - Charles S Johnson becomes 1st black president of Fisk University

Nov 3rd - Emperor Hirohito proclaims new Japanese constitution

Nov 4th - UN Educational, Scientific, & Cultural Organization formed
Nov 5th - John F Kennedy (D-Mass) elected to House of Representatives

Nov 9th - Pres Harry Truman ends wage/price freeze

Nov 12th - A branch of the Exchange National Bank in Chicago, Illinois opens the first ten drive-up teller windows.

Nov 15th - House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) interrogates astronomer Harlow Shapley

Nov 21st - Georgi Dimitrov, a communist,  elected premier of Bulgaria

Nov 23rd - French Navy fire in Haiphong Vietnam, kills 6,000
Nov 23rd - The Workers Party of South Korea is founded.

Dec 3rd - US government asks UN to order dictator Franco out of Spain
Dec 5th - Pres Harry Truman creates Committee on Civil Rights by Exec Order #9808

Dec 11th - Spain suspended from UN; UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) established (Nobel 1965)

Dec 12th - Tide detergent introduced; UN accepts 6 Manhattan blocks as a gift from John D Rockefeller Jr
Dec 13th - Leon Blum elected French premier

Dec 14th - Togo made a trusteeship territory of UN; UN General Assembly votes to establish UN headquarters in NYC

Dec 19th - War breaks out in Indochina as Ho Chi Minh attacks French in Hanoi

Dec 23rd - U of Tenn refuses to play Duquesne U, because they may use a black player in their basketball game
Dec 24th - 4th French republic established
Dec 24th - US General MacNarney gives 800,000 “minor nazi’s” amnesty

Dec 25th - Constitution accepted in Taiwan

Dec 26th - Flamingo Hotel in Las Vegas opens (start of an era)
Dec 31st - French troops leave Lebanon


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Obamacare is Coming! Obamacare is Coming!

images-7

[Ed. note: Although I try and avoid political entries on this blog, the topic of this blog has been so politicized, that I am not able to avoid it.]

In spite of the fact that representatives in Congress have tried to repeal the Health Care Reform Act a whopping 40 times, open enrollment is due to begin on October 1 and the Health Care Reform Act, aka Obama Care, officially will go into effect the first of January 2014.  That is the good news.

The news that really chagrins me is that each time the obstructionists in Congress tried to repeal the law (which would actually benefit most American citizens) they did so to the tune of 1.5 MILLION dollars.  EACH time!  SIXTY MILLION DOLLARS of OUR tax dollars ended up being spent for what I can only conclude is shenanigans on the part of the obstructionists.  These are the same people who keep telling us that the government does not have enough money to operate.  They are the same people who can get the very best healthcare available at a 72-75% discount.*  As we have been the only developed nation in the world that still does not provide universal healthcare to its citizens, the actions of these obstructionists has been destructive.  Okay.  Politics over.  Back to the good news.

Starting October 1, people will be able to choose their healthcare coverage and healthcare provider.  Health insurers are no longer allowed to deny individuals with pre-existing conditions.  They are no longer allowed to drop individuals if they cost them too much or put a lifetime limit on benefits.

The following is the coverage that every citizen will have a right to regardless of the healthcare plan they choose.

Free annual check ups; Emergency services; Hospitalizations; Laboratory services; Maternity care; Mental health and substance abuse treatment; Outpatient, or ambulatory care; Pediatric care; Prescription drugs; Preventive care; Rehabilitative services; Vision and dental care for children.

Open enrollment will allow one to compare coverage options before enrolling.  In this new requirement that all citizens own health insurance, the government is offering an exchange rate between what the premiums cost and what the insured will have to pay. This exchange rate will be determined by the individual states.

In Virginia for example:

The average premium, without tax credits, would be $237 a month for the lowest-cost bronze plan and $335 a month for the second-lowest silver plan.

For a family of four making $50,000, a mid-range plan, after tax credits, would be $282 a month under the second-lowest silver plan. Without a tax credit, $799.

For a 27-year-old person earning $25,000 a year, the premium would be $80 a month, with a tax credit, for the bronze plan and $145 for the silver plan, also with a tax credit.

Six out of 10 Virginians who are uninsured will be able to find coverage for less than $100 a month when tax credits and Medicaid coverage are included.

 

© Yvonne Behrens, M.Ed  2013

_____________________

*According to the Congressional Research Service, the FEHBP offers about 300 different private health care plans, including five government-wide, fee-for-service plans and many regional health maintenance organization (HMO) plans, plus high-deductible, tax-advantaged plans. All plans cover hospital, surgical and physician services, and mental health services, prescription drugs and “catastrophic” coverage against very large medical expenses. There are no waiting periods for coverage when new employees are hired, and there are no exclusions for preexisting conditions. The FEHBP negotiates contracts annually with all insurance companies who wish to participate. There is plenty of competition for the business; FEHBP is the largest employer-sponsored health plan in the U.S.

Like other large employers, the government pays a large share of the cost of coverage. On average, the government pays 72 percent of the premiums for its workers, up to a maximum of 75 percent depending on the policy chosen. For example, the popular Blue Cross and Blue Shield standard fee-for-service family plan carries a total premium of $1,327.80 per month, of which the beneficiary pays $430.04. Washington, D.C.-based employees who prefer an HMO option might choose the Kaiser standard family plan. It carries a total premium of $825.15 per month, of which the employee pays only $206.29.  (Factcheck.org)

 

Drug Addiction — The Pharmaceutical Kind

images-2

Recently I read an article in america.aljazeera. com entitled, “Painkiller Addiction Worst Drug Epidemic in U.S. History.”  According to the article:

In the United States, enough painkillers were prescribed in 2010 to medicate every American adult around the clock for one month.

That is a LOT of pills.  No wonder the pharmaceutical industry is one of the most lucrative money-making industries in the world!  You may recall that I wrote about an experience in my family which may not be so atypical given this article.

We have all heard about the extreme addictive qualities of  Vicodin and Oxycontin.    I had a friend who was battling cancer and her doctor had her on Oxycontin for five years.  He originally had prescribed it to her because she was feeling pain in her bones, but it was not long into her use that it was clear that she was hooked.  She made no apology and felt no remorse, choosing, understandably, a high that might decrease some of both the physical and emotional distress that her cancer was causing her.   Her story might be a justifiable one for the use of Oxycontin.  However, there are many stories of doctors who provide Oxycontin to their very wealthy patients on the most superficial of claims.

Oxycontin is the drug of choice among the wealthy and many articles have been written on the widespread misuse of this drug. In part this is because the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has painted broad strokes for what constitutes enough pain to justify the use of Oxycontin.  In spite of the fact that there has been urging on the part of a group called “Physicians for Responsible Opioid Prescribing,” the FDA has done nothing to change their denotation of what constitutes justifiable pain.  This topic is rather slippery since the claim can be made that individuals do have different pain tolerance.  However, with the high levels of abuse that have been documented in the widespread use of Oxycontin, one might wonder whose pocket the FDA may be in.

After his resignation from his post as Commissioner of the FDA in December 1969, Herbert L. Ley, Jr., in an interview with the New York Times, warned the public about the FDA’s inability to safeguard consumers. People were being misled, he believed: “The thing that bugs me is that the people think the FDA is protecting them – it isn’t. What the FDA is doing and what the public thinks it’s doing are as different as night and day,” he said. …… Ley was critical of Congress, the Administration and the drug industry; he stated that he had “constant, tremendous, sometimes unmerciful pressure” from the drug industry and that the drug company lobbyists, combined with the politicians who worked on behalf of their patrons, could bring “tremendous pressure” to bear on him and his staff, to try preventing FDA restrictions on their drugs. The interview concluded with Ley stating that the entire issue was about money, “pure and simple”.[47][48]

This was back in 1969.  If anything has changed since then, it is that the pharmaceutical companies have even more leverage with the FDA.

In a 2005 interview, Dr. David J. Graham, associate director of the FDA’s Office of Drug Safety, was asked “What Specifically do you believe is broken in the FDA and what needs to be done to fix it? What must be done to improve the drug vetting system ?” his response: ” FDA is inherently biased in favor of the pharmaceutical industry. It views industry as its client, whose interests it must represent and advance. It views its primary mission as approving as many drugs it can, regardless of whether the drugs are safe or needed.”

Back to the Aljazeera article I read on the American addiction to pain killers:

Prescriptions for painkillers in the United States have nearly tripled in the past two decades and fatal overdoses reached epidemic levels, exceeding those from heroin and cocaine combined, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

At the same time, the first-ever global analysis of illicit drug abuse, published this month in the British medical journal The Lancet, found that addictions to heroin and popular painkillers, including Vicodin and OxyContin, kill the most people and cause the greatest health burden, compared with illicit drugs such as marijuana and cocaine.

High-income nations, such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia, had the highest rates of abuse, 20 times greater than in the least affected countries, according to the Lancet study.

It would seem that our love affair with pharmaceutical drugs is not doing a whole lot to help us in our health but it sure as heck is helping the pharmaceutical industries to make lots of money.

© Yvonne Behrens, M.Ed  2013

 

 

Fifty Years Ago

300px-Birmingham_campaign_dogs

Last night, several friends and I went to see “The Butler.”  The Movie is powerful and painful in its unapologetic portrayal of the racism and, in turn, the discrimination [and all the ugliness that such discrimination entails] that exist(ed) in our country.  The movie, as you may know, focusses mostly on that period of time when the Civil Rights Movement gained momentum and successfully overturned the Jim Crow laws of the South and made integration of the the school systems the law of the land.  Watching what the young people had to endure, those who chose to be at the forefront of the non-violent battle Martin Luther King led, was unbearable.  The amount of courage it required to “break” the “law” and accept whatever consequences this might bring about was deeply moving.

It has been fifty years since Martin Luther King stood on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial and gave his “I Have A Dream” speech.  Although I was only a kid, the significance of the moment and the speech was not lost on me.  I came from a liberal family and my parents took great care to instill in us that all “men” were created equal and that the racism, the apartheid that existed in the U.S. at the time was not to be tolerated.  We even had our own little run in with the nastiness of racism.  We had just recently returned from having lived in the Congo.  My parents had invited a Black colleague over for dinner.  The next morning, we found paint sprayed on our walkway “Behren Go Back to the Congo” (the misspelling of our last name made my parents certain that the sign had been spray painted by our neighbor, but we had no way of proving his culpability.  Another indication that our neighbor was the guilty party was that when we applied to become members of the club around the corner from where we lived, we were denied entry.  Our neighbor sat on the board.)  Certainly these small incidents do not even touch the hatred and discrimination that Blacks confronted at the time, but it did bring home to me just how volatile the question of race was in our country.

It is no secret that Malcolm X felt that Martin Luther King was an “Uncle Tom.”  Malcolm X, another brilliant orator in the cause of freedom of the Black wo/man in our society was considered more radical than Martin Luther King because he preached total separation from the White man.

When I was thirteen, I became very drawn to Malcolm X.  I believe this was right after he had been assassinated and the whites and the media had been portraying him as dangerous because he preached anger and separation.  I wanted to find out why this person was causing such a reaction in [sic:"my"] community.  My research showed that not only did Malcolm X speak “truth,” but also made sense.  Charismatic rather than dangerous would be how I would have described him and do so to this day.  But his stance was more militant than Martin Luther King’s stance.  Malcolm X was not shy in preaching “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a life for a life” rhetoric, which is why the white community, ever guilty of its treatment of the Blacks but, oh so not being able to let go of the power it gave them, shuddered in their shoes.**

When an interviewer asked Martin Luther King what he thought of Malcolm X’s accusation of the former’s approach toward the white man, the Reverend King gave a beautiful answer:

In the end, I think our country needed both leaders and both approaches in order to shift the paradigm because, as Malcolm X pointed out in a marvelous speech he gave on the difference between a house slave and a field slave [see below], when things are more comfortable, the human tendency is to sit back and allow things to remain the way they are, even if it undermines the individual adversely affected.

Although in this speech Malcolm X was specifically referring to the Blacks and their relationship with the Whites, I can easily translate this analogy in more general terms to where our country is today in its response to the way big corporations and Wall Street continue to gut our economic base.  I.e., “We still have food on the table, a roof over our head, a means of getting around, sure “they” have more, but that’s the way things are.”  This not to diminish the fact that the racist undertones that plague our country continue to raise their ugly heads.

Maybe this disparity continues to exist because, in spite of the uplifting belief that we had broken the race glass ceiling, so beautifully summarized in a communication individuals were texting, “Rosa sat, so Martin could walk, so Obama could run” the night Barak Obama won the presidency of the United States, that race glass ceiling continues to cover our nation.  Until we truly reflect and try to incorporate the following fact stated by the Reverend Martin Luther King during his “I have a Dream” speech:

“…. many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today, have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny.They have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone [author's emphasis].”       Martin Luther King, “I have a Dream” Speech, August 28th, 1963.

Until we are willing to display the courage that the African American youth did during the Civil Rights movement, until we truly say, “enough!” and mean it with our actions, until we come together in a United state, we will continue to live in a world of discrimination and inequality, whether based on race or wealth.

 

© Yvonne Behrens, M.Ed  2013

** We really do not know how Malcolm X’s position would have evolved over time since he was gunned down before he was able to come into full expression.  We do know that he went on Hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca and one of the requirements for Muslims) and that the experience profoundly affected his outlook.